Glossary | Barbot Paints

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Glossary

All the technical vocabulary used by Tintas Barbot, to increase your knowledge of paints and paintwork.

A, B

Absorbency

The ability of a surface to soak up a particular product.

Additive

Auxiliary substances intended to facilitate the manufacture of paint, improving its general properties.

Adhesion

The degree of attachment of a paint or compound to a surface after drying.

Binder

In paints and sealants, this is the component that binds the pigment particles, forming an even and continuous film and helping its adhesion to the substrate. The nature and quantity of the binder determine most of the performance properties of paints (resistance, adhesion, colour retention and durability) and of sealants (durability, adhesion and flexibility at low temperatures).

Blistering

The formation of blisters in the paint film.

Brush

Device comprising bristles or fibres attached to the end of a handle and used to apply paints, varnish, adhesive, etc.

C

Chalking

Deterioration of an exterior paint surface due to weather conditions, resulting in a faded surface covered with a whitish powder. Chalking occurs when the binder is deteriorated by harsh environmental conditions. It must be removed before repainting.

Coat

Layer of paint that is applied to a surface.

Colour

Shade with which surfaces may be painted/tinted.

Colourant

Concentrate, in the form of a liquid or powder, added to paint to obtain a particular colour.

Consistency

Apparent viscosity of a paint when subject to external mechanical stress.

Corrosion

Reaction between oxygen in the air, moisture and metals. When this reaction occurs on ferrous metals, rust appears.

Coverage

A paint’s ability to cover the background colour it is applied over. Refers not only to the opacity of the film, but also to its thickness and levelling.

D

Damp

Impregnation by water or water vapour.

Density

Mass per unit volume.

Dilution

Act or effect of diluting paint, making it more liquid, by using its thinner.

Durability

Degree of resistance of a paint or compound to the environmental conditions to which it is exposed, especially weather. It also refers to the abrasion resistance of exterior paints.

E

Efflorescence

Migration of salts from within a substrate to the surface. The appearance of efflorescence on walls is caused by the surface crystallisation of soluble salts transported by rising damp or by the construction damp when it is carried to the outer surface of walls. This problem frequently causes the complete deterioration of the substrate.

Elasticity

The ability of paint to expand and contract with the substrate without suffering damage or changes in its appearance. Expansion and contraction are usually caused by changes in temperature and humidity.

Emulsion

Mixture (generally milky) in which one liquid is dispersed (but not dissolved) in another. A paint’s binder is known as an emulsion.

Enamel

A varnish tinted using steel oxides, normally used on wood and metals. It has a smooth and normally gloss finish.

F

Ferrous

Describes a metal that contains iron and is subject to corrosion.

Finish Coat

The last coat of paint or varnish applied to a surface.

Fungicide

Chemical added to paints and sealants to prevent the growth of fungi on a painted surface.

Fungus

Black or grey organic growth that can appear on the surface of a paint or sealant, especially in humid areas.

G, H, I

Galvanisation

The application of a zinc (or other metal) coating to a piece of metal, to protect it against corrosion.

Gloss

Degree of reflection of a paint.

Hardness

A material’s degree of resistance to pressure without being deformed or scratched.

Impregnation

Effect of filling, soaking.

Inert

Describes a substance that is not easily modified by chemical action.

J, K, L

Joint

Interval or space between two building materials (for example, two tiles).

M, N, O

Masonry

Construction in cement, mortar, stone, bricks and stucco.

Matt Finish

Finish without gloss or sheen.

Membrane paint

Elastic (flexible) and waterproof paint, normally applied to exterior substrates and when repainting.

Mould

Fungi that develop especially in hot, humid, poorly ventilated or poorly lit environments.

Opacity

The degree to which a particular material hides a background. A paint with high opacity totally hides the substrate.

Oxidation

Chemical reaction to oxygen. For example, the rusting of ferrous metals or steel.

P

Paint

Generally opaque coating comprising binder, liquid, additives and pigments. Applied in a liquid form, it dries to form a continuous film that protects and decorates the substrate. After its application, it becomes a decorative and protective coating, providing the surfaces on which it is applied with a finish, resistance, protection and durability.

Paint Film

Film formed once a paint has dried.

Permeable

That which permits the passage of water vapour without damage.

Pigments

Solid particles, used to give colour, coverage, corrosion resistance and filler in the formulation of paints and other products.

Porous

Describes a substrate with pores.

Primer

Name given to the product applied before the finish paint, intended to ensure even absorption and protect against various types of agents.

R

Re-coat time

Interval between the application of a coat of paint, varnish or similar product and the time when it can satisfactorily receive a new coat.

Remover

Generally liquid mixture used to remove stains from floorboards, clothing, etc., or to remove varnish, enamel or paint from a surface.

Render

Mortar made from lime or cement and sand, applied to walls to prepare them for a finish coat.

Resin

Natural or synthetic material used as a binder in a paint or sealant.

Retouch

Application of a small layer of paint in order to correct a defect.

Rust

Iron oxide that appears on ferrous substrates and gradually destroys them.

S

Sandpaper

Used mainly on wood to remove imperfections, making it smother. There are various different types of sandpaper: for wood, for metals and wet sandpaper (used with water and other liquid solvents that wash off the impurities removed by the sandpaper).

Satin Finish

A finish between medium sheen and matt.

Semi-gloss

A paint finish between gloss and matt.

Solvent

Used in paints to reduce their viscosity or consistency in order for them to be more easily applied. The most common solvents include water, turpentine, alcohol, acetone and thinner. It is a generally volatile liquid in which the paint particles are dissolved or dispersed.

Spectrophotometer

A device that reads and identifies the colour of a sample.

Spraying

Application of a thin layer of product using a pressure device (for example, paint sprayer).

Spreading rate

Measure of the amount of paint used on a given area, generally expressed in m²/litre. Actual spreading rate varies depending on the application method, the porosity of the substrate, etc. and the nature of the paint.

Stability

Ability of the product to remain uniform in its appearance and performance.

Stencil

A decorative painting technique based on repeated patterns painted using cut-outs.

Stucco

Mortar made with plaster.

Substrate

Medium or surface on which paint is applied.

T, U, V

 

Texture

Surface with slight roughness.

Textured

Describes paint including a fine aggregate for a textured effect.

Thickener

Additive used to give paint the correct viscosity.

Thinner

Liquid added to a paint to reduce its viscosity. A thinner is not necessarily a solvent for the binder.

Undercoat

Product normally applied to wood, between the primer and the topcoat paint.

Varnish

Finishing product normally applied as decoration and protection to wood substrates (doors, windows, furniture, floor, etc.), transparent and coloured or colourless. Can be gloss, semi-gloss or matt.

Vehicle

Different types of resin (natural, synthetic, emulsions, etc.) that produce paints with different physical and chemical properties. It forms the protective film into which the paint is converted after drying and is responsible for drying time, adhesion, colour retention and gloss, weather resistance, etc.

Velvet Finish

Plain finish with a velvety and medium-sheen appearance.

Viscosity

Degree of fluidity of a paint.

Volatile

That evaporates.

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)

Any organic compound that evaporates under standard-test conditions. Most paint solvents are classified as VOCs.

W, X, Y, Z

Washability

The ability of a paint to resist cleaning with domestic-use chemical agents.

Water-based

Describes paint made using water.

Waterproofing

A product that prevents the passage of fluids, especially water. Applied mainly on terraces or exterior walls when insulation against water penetration is required.

Water-repellent

A product that repels water and prevents it from entering the substrate.

Water repellents

Colourless finishes for exteriors specially formulated for water to form drops on their surface, reducing water penetration into the substrate.